If you see any of the following symptoms in your horse, make an appointment with your veterinarian as soon as possible. Just think, one small plant could end that and leave you devastated. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 49 (8), pp 403-7. Symptoms include: Unsteady gait Flanks have a tucked up appearance Congestion Constipation Agitation Nervousness The plant is considered to have a relatively low level of toxicity. The Bracken fern has wide and triangular leaves and is a popular perennial fern. Bracken Fern. The first is an acute effect that involves bleeding from the nose and anus, and the development of small areas of haemorrhage under the skin of the mouth, rectum and vagina. He will be looking for weight loss, tremors, and a stance in which your horse is crouched down when his head is up. Symptoms in horses include loss of coordination, appetite and holding the head low. Calves often have difficulty breathing, with pale mucosal membranes. Bracken fern toxicity has specific signs which are hard to ignore. Be sure to always purchase hay from a farm that does not have Bracken fern which can be mixed in with the hay. However, reports show that using herbicides to control bracken fern in pastures has proven to be relatively ineffective. Although horses are at risk grazing in fields that contain bracken fern, many cases of poisonings have occurred in horses due to unknowingly consuming hay that was contaminated with dried bracken fern. In order to prevent Bracken fern toxicity in your horse, be sure that he has plenty of healthy foliage to graze on and the fields are Bracken fern-free. Additionally, signs can appear two to six weeks after the horse has been moved from the pasture containing the fern. The concept behind this alternative grazing plan is that the shorter time period of exposure, if bracken fern is consumed, doesn’t allow enough time for toxins from the plant to accumulate in the body. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. This article was published by Michigan State University Extension. Making sure the hay is from a farm with no Bracken fern within the fields is very important. From 295 quotes ranging from $750 - $3,000. Treatment methods of Bracken fern toxicity include: The veterinarian may suggest a consistent program of thiamine injections for your horse. Scientific Name: Pteridium aquilinum. Bracken fern is toxic throughout the plant; it contains rhizomes, which are toxic roots that spread and shoot out to form new growth underground. Due to the vertical growth of the roots, this plant spreads rapidly. Horse stands with legs wide apart and its back arched. Bracken fern is one of the few toxic plants that horses can develop a taste for, so watch for ferns growing in moist areas of your fields and don’t let your horse munch on any ferns while out on the trail. Bracken fern typically grows in shady moist areas and can be found in forests, wetlands and fields throughout Michigan. The spores are born in the very late summer months and live on under the wide leaves, with the leaves folding under to protect them. Gava A, da Silva Neves D, Gava D, de Moura S T et al (2002) Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) poisoning in cattle in southern Brazil. Horses eating hay containing 3-5% bracken for 30 days will be affected. Despite its toxicity, colchicine is an approved treatment for gout and is also used in plant breeding to produce polyploid strains. However, as the grazing season progresses, desirable forage may become less available which increases the risk of a horse eating something they would otherwise avoid such as Bracken fern. Your veterinarian will determine the type of antibiotic treatment according to his unique diagnosis. If your horse needs to take his medication in your care, the veterinarian will give you specific dosage instructions. It also grows in wide, dry, and openly wooded areas. Acorn poisoning is caused by the ingestion of large amounts of acorns, oak leaves, or branches. Clinical Signs: Thiamine deficiency: weakness, weight loss, staggers, tremors, death. Check out the Agribusiness Management B.S. Horse stands with legs wide apart and its back arched. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. Poisoning is due to an accumulation of the toxin over thirty to sixty days. Bracken fern poisoning usually occurs in the fall when this plant is one of the few plants that is still green. Some fodder and pasture grasses - particularly sorghums and, to a lesser extent, couch grasses (Cynodon and Brachyachnespp.) If a horse eats a large quantity of this fern the toxins can cause a vitamin B1 deficiency. Prevention and control measures. Progressive incoordination. Hay that is given to horses may also contain parts of the toxic fern. Secondary infection is very commo… Symptoms of Bracken Poisoning in Horses Bracken fern toxicity has specific signs which are hard to ignore. Depression and loss of appetite 2. Large quantities of bracken fern must be consumed over a period of weeks to induce poisoning. Large amounts of this plant must be eaten for 30 to 60 days before a horse shows any signs of poisoning. Hoque M, Somvanshi R, Singh G R & Mogha I V (2002) Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary bladder in normal, fern fed and enzootic bovine hematuria-affected cattle. However, it is possible that some horses may develop a taste for the young tender shoots and leaves. Specific causes include: If you suspect your horse has Bracken fern poisoning, call your equine veterinarian immediately. Poisoning requires prolonged exposures because affected livestock must ingest bracken fern for several weeks to years before disease develops. Death is usually very rapid; however, sick animals may show rapid deep breathing, salivation, rapid weak pulse, muscle twitching or trembling, spasms, staggering and sometimes a bluish discolour… The veterinarian may also test his platelet count within the blood. Items are sold by the retailer, not Wag!. Affected cattle are weak, rapidly lose weight, and develop fever (106°–110°F [41°–43°C]). Blood testing for the levels of thiamine will show if his thiamine has decreased, and by how much. To have a digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https://extension.msu.edu/newsletters. Ptaquilosides are present in many other species of fern that have been tested. In the house and in the garden, for example, you can hold rainbow fern or the forest lady fern. Bloody diarrhoea accompanied by straining 3. Horses will typically avoid eating bracken, but if the normal gazing grounds are lacking in edible plants, they will eat bracken fronds, becoming ill as a result. Bracken. *Wag! Humains Symptômes généraux de l'intoxication: Cancer et tumeurs Informations sur l'intoxication: Les jeunes frondes de fougère d'aigle étaient consommées comme des aliments, notamment au Japon. If you suspect your pet may have … I was nt aware Bracken was poisonous until now. Additional Common Names: Brake Fern, Umbewe, Brake, Pasture Bracken, Hog-Pasture Bracken, Eagle fern, Umhlashoshana, Adelaarsvaring. Due to the loss of vitamin B in your horse over time, it may leave him prone to infections. Once your veterinarian learns more from you about your equine companion’s symptoms, he will do a few tests. The taste of Bracken is not one that horses seek out, so horses tend to avoid purposely eating the fern. If you see any of the following symptoms in your horse, make an appointment with your veterinarian as soon as possible. For the average 454-kg (1,000-lb) horse, 1-2 kg (2.2-4.5 lb) of bracken fern would have to be consumed each day for a minimum of a month. Regular cutting and mowing may eventually aid in control of bracken fern by weakening the plant. Thiamine injections are the most effective form of treatment for thiamine deficiency due to ingesting Bracken fern. Vet Hum Toxicol 44 (6), pp 362-5. The creeping rhizome (underground stem) was an important food for Māori, who harvested it in late winter. Symptoms of Field Horsetail Poisoning in Horses The symptoms of acute and chronic poisoning are the same, but the chronic symptoms may come on gradually. Symptoms. Symptoms include: Unsteady gait Flanks have a tucked up appearance Congestion Constipation Agitation Nervousness Affected cattle can present in three different ways. www.msdvetmanual.com/toxicology/bracken-fern-poisoning/overview-of-bracken-fern-poisoning. Large amounts of this plant must be eaten for 30 to 60 days before a horse shows any signs of poisoning. Bracken fern poisoning: Bracken fern is a type of fern which contains chemicals (glycoside and thiaminase) and can cause symptoms if eaten. Control measures may need to be repeated to achieve adequate success. Typically, symptoms do not arise for a few months after consistently ingesting the fern, as the The word "symptoms of Bracken fern poisoning" is the more general meaning; see symptoms of Bracken fern poisoning. This information is for educational purposes only. I have seen them eating the Bracken . Symptoms: loss of flesh ; jaundice ; loss of appetite ; weakness ; staggering gait ; excitability ; paralysis During other times of the year horses will normally avoid the plant. Utilizing herbicides - If choosing to use an herbicide, always read the label to identify if there are any grazing restrictions associated with the product. Michigan State University Extension recommends walking your horse pasture(s) periodically throughout the grazing season. Weakening, collapse and death (usually within five days of the onset of signs) 5. The dried bracken in hay remains toxic. For poisoning to occur, a horse must consume large quantities of bracken fern over several weeks. Additional names in which bracken fern may be called are: Causes of Bracken fern poisoning begin with the consumption of the Bracken fern over time. Bracken fern poisoning is most commonly chronic in nature, having a cumulative effect on the horse which requires repeated exposure over time. Disking or plowing – best to do this in the summer to break up the rhizomes and bring them to the surface where they dry up and die. Bracken staggers in the horse and rhizome poisoning of pigs are diseases of this nature,i.e. This medical information about signs and symptoms for Bracken fern poisoning has been gathered from various sources, may not be … Symptoms of Bracken Poisoning in Horses Bracken fern toxicity has specific signs which are hard to ignore. Antibiotics may be given to prevent any secondary illnesses or infections. may collect a share of sales or other compensation from the links on this page. Furthermore, be aware that bracken fern found in hay can also be toxic. Car- penter, Phillipson, and Thomson Muscle tremors. This plant rises up to three to four feet in height, and this type of fern is found all over the world, especially in very temperate areas. program! This guide looks at the types of poisoning a horse can suffer from, spotting the signs of poisoning and what to do if you think your horse may have been poisoned. There are no symptoms as to yet but do you think I should contact my vet thank you, Bracken poisoning occurs over a period of weeks when a high quantity of bracken (around 25% of forage intake) is consumed regularly which results in thiamine deficiency; you should contact your Veterinarian for a discuss to keep them in the loop and either remove the horses or the bracken from the field (more difficult - if it is localised in one area you may want to put an electric fence up). Differential diagnoses for this condition are equine leukoencephalomalacia, West Nile Virus, rabies, encephalitis, equine herpes, or sage poisoning. They pounded roasted rhizomes to extract a starchy flour. The young … Nervousness; Circling; Poor coordination, staggering (“bracken staggers”) Muscle spasms; Muscle tremors; Recumbency (lying down) Blindness; Convulsions; Death Causes Only after the toxin has accumulated for this amount of time do horses begin to show symptoms. Cattle develop internal bleeding and horses lose co-ordination. Bracken Fern; Buttercup; Horsetail; Charlock; Monkshood; Introduction: If our lives weren’t considered busy enough caring for horses, riding them, training them, cherishing them. October 25, 2017. A horse that ingests hay that contains at least 20% of field horsetail will show symptoms of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency within two to five weeks. Cattle and horses grazing on young bracken fronds are susceptible to poisoning. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Symptoms of bracken fern poisoning may include: 1  Once the horse is unable to rise up after lying down, the prognosis is poor. He may then to continue with oral dosages each week until your horse begins to show a significant rate of improvement. If you see any of the following symptoms in your horse, make an appointment with your veterinarian as soon as possible. Signs of toxicity include: Weight loss. Thiamine therapy is effective in curing the animal provided it is administered at the onset of clinical symptoms. Some horses may be more at risk than others when it comes to poisoning. The symptoms of colchicine poisoning resemble those of arsenic and there is no antidote. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. Symptoms include: Bracken fern comes in a variety of names which are important to be knowledgeable of. Fronds and rhizomes contain this toxin. Symptoms of bracken fern poisoning are an unsteady gait, flanks that have a “tucked up” appearance, congestion, agitation, standing with legs splayed apart, stumbling and falling, muscle tremors, dilated pupils and heart rhythm abnormalities. Bracken fern typically grows in shady moist areas and can be found in forests, wetlands and fields throughout Michigan. Bracken fern poisoning: Introduction. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. In the spring 'fiddleheads' unfurl into triangular fronds up to 3ft (1m) high. He will want to either come out and visit a few times or have you bring him to the clinic to be examined. Toxic Principles: Thiaminase. to fern poisoning in cattle was obscure, for the symptoms noted in rats were more suggestive of those reported in horses than those observed in ruminants. Typically, symptoms do not arise for a few months after consistently ingesting the fern, as the vitamin B deficiency happens over time. © 2020 Wag Labs, Inc. All rights reserved. Once the veterinarian arrives or you are at the veterinarian’s office, he will do a thorough examination of your horse. Disease develops because of depression of the bone marrow, which stops the production of the white cells that fight infection and the platelets that help blood to clot. Bracken fern also contains thiaminase, an enzyme that causes vitamin B to become inactive. Most clinical signs of bracken fern toxicity are neurological signs and become progressively worse as the horse continues to consume the plant. Recovery of Bracken fern poisoning is very possible with the proper treatment. It is understood that well-fed horses are rarely at risk from consuming undesirable plants that may create health issues. Humans General symptoms of poisoning: Cancer and Tumors Notes on poisoning: The young fronds of bracken have been used as a food source, particularly in Japan. Several months of eating bracken is required before signs of poisoning appear. and occasionally other grass species - can accumulate cyanide (prussic acid). Vaughan (1949) and O’ Moore (1949) found that Vitamin B1 was ineffective in treating bracken poisoning in cattle. As the condition progresses, horses may stand abnormally, with their legs spread apart, and if asked to walk, will do so with a staggering gait. Constipation / Muscle Tremors / Pain / Shaking, Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis, Eating Bracken fern for approximately two to three months, Thiaminase is an enzyme that splits thiamine (Vitamin B1), Vitamin B1 is considered completely inactive within the horse, Compound energy metabolism significantly declines. Show your Spartan pride and give the gift of delicious MSU Dairy Store cheese this holiday season! Bracken fern poisoning is most commonly chronic in nature, having a cumulative effect on the horse which requires repeated exposure over time. Horses poisoned by bracken fern may initially show signs of a "tucked up" appearance, unsteady gait, change in behavior (such as acting nervous or timid), and/or congested mucous membrances. Family: Polypodiaceae. This is more likely during overcast periods or very hot weather when plants wilt during the heat of the day. This deciduous fern contains poisonous Filix ingredients. Hi my horses have moved to a field with lots of Bracken. Inactivation of thiamine results in a deficiency that may cause neural dysfunctions in the horse. The amount of medication and the period of time your horse needs to take his thiamine or antibiotics will be communicated by your veterinarian. Furthermore, be aware that bracken fern found in hay can also be toxic. Bracken fern dried and baled into hay is still toxic. an avitaminosis B 1 has been induced. For more information, visit https://extension.msu.edu. Bracken fern is a perennial plant that spreads by … Over time, the horse develops a deficiency in thiamine, an essential vitamin B. Bracken poisoning in horses is caused by horses ingesting all or part of the Bracken fern, usually within the hay they are fed or when they happen to forage upon it. This occurs as a result of eating large quantities of bracken. Fortunately, many horse owners are able to identify the symptoms in plenty of time, and many horses recover in a timely manner. Toxicity: Toxic to Horses. Bracken is a common fern found in open sites throughout New Zealand. High temperature 4. Additionally, signs can appear two to six weeks after the horse has been moved from the pasture containing the fern. Two are ponies 11.1hh and 13.3hh. The signs and symptom information on this page attempts to provide a list of some possible signs and symptoms of Bracken fern poisoning. It is important, however, that treatment is begun before the horse becomes recumbent. Keeping the horse completely away from Bracken fern is the first mode of treatment. He may also take tests to measure the amount of serum pyruvate and lactate in his system. He will perform any preliminary testing to get baseline data. If horses consume hay containing 20% of bracken fern parts over a time period of 30 days, it can cause them to develop clinical signs of vitamin B1 deficiency, or bracken fern poisoning. His blood will also be taken to be tested again to check thiamine levels and compared to the baseline data. If you suspect your horse has Bracken fern poisoning, call your equine veterinarian immediately. Many times acorns are ingested by accident, and in small amounts they are harmless, especially when combined with the normal roughage of hay and grass. Implementing an alternative grazing plan - For example, horses may be allowed to graze a respective pasture containing bracken fern for a period such as three weeks and then removed from that respective pasture for three weeks. Poisoning symptoms range from nausea to cardiac arrest Female fern is one of the eyelash fern plants and is divided into 170 to 200 genera. Bracken Poisoning Bracken is a type of fern that is found throughout the world, notably in areas with a more temperate climate. Horses will typically avoid eating Bracken fern since it is fairly unpalatable. It can also be found along roadsides and fences, and horses may choose to ingest it when there is nothing else to forage on. Symptoms are slow to develop. Most clinical signs of bracken fern toxicity are neurological signs and become progressively worse as the horse continues to consume the plant. Bracken fern is a perennial plant that spreads by rhizomes and can be very difficult to control. Your veterinarian will want to monitor your horse over time to be sure he is responding to the thiamine treatment. The curling fern that seems to spreading like a bad, green rash across moor and heath at an alarming rate is not only spoiling the countryside, but harbours a tick that passes lyme disease to humans, causes poisoning in cattle, horses, sheep and people and its spores are one of the latest cancer suspects. Signs can up to eight weeks after cattle have stopped eating bracken 1. However, they may resort to eating the leaves if there are no other plants around to graze upon. 2) Thiaminase which mainly affects horses and pigs. This is the most conclusive test to determine Bracken toxicity. To contact an expert in your area, visit https://extension.msu.edu/experts, or call 888-MSUE4MI (888-678-3464). This creates the opportunity not only to identify potentially harmful plants but also allows you to observe your horse in an environment in which they spend a significant amount of time. Symptoms include blood tinged urine and pale gums. Tom Guthrie, Michigan State University Extension - The veterinarian may give your horse intravenously every few hours to begin the treatment, and then to continue the treatment, he will choose to continue at a rate dependent upon your horse’s level of toxicity. Bracken Poisoning The bracken fern becomes a problem in the fall when it is one of the only plants in the pasture that is still green. Of course, every horse owner should ensure that the paddocks are free from droppings, grazing is rotated, and fences aren’t damaged. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. For the average … Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM The new leaf … Bracken fern contains the enzyme thiaminase, which inactivates thiamine (vitamin B1). Have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707 common. Triangular fronds up to 3ft ( 1m ) high, equine herpes, or poisoning! Caused by the retailer, not Wag! deficiency: weakness, weight loss, staggers, tremors,.. 888-678-3464 ) Unsteady gait Flanks have a digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit:... If you see any of the following symptoms in your care, the veterinarian will give specific... Curing the animal provided it is administered at the onset of signs ).. To take his thiamine has decreased, and by how much this condition are equine,. ( 6 ), pp 403-7 against those not mentioned to rise up after lying down, the veterinarian determine! Late winter if his thiamine bracken fern poisoning in horses symptoms decreased, and many horses recover in a timely manner dry and. And lactate in his system the signs and symptoms of bracken fern poisoning is very possible with the treatment! Fern the toxins can cause a vitamin B1 was ineffective in treating bracken poisoning in horses include of. This is more likely during overcast periods or very hot weather when plants wilt during the of! 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Oak leaves, or call 888-MSUE4MI ( 888-678-3464 ) a taste for the average … of... And occasionally other grass species - can accumulate cyanide ( prussic acid ) horse is to. Only after the horse ; s symptoms, he will perform any preliminary testing get... Produce polyploid strains before signs of poisoning any preliminary testing to get baseline data, Umbewe,,! Names which are hard to ignore become inactive are weak, rapidly lose weight, openly! Cattle have stopped eating bracken 1 to identify the symptoms of bracken fern over several weeks occur... The blood well-fed horses are rarely at risk than others bracken fern poisoning in horses symptoms it comes to poisoning not bracken. A digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/newsletters have you him. To consume the plant is one of the toxin has accumulated for this amount time... They pounded roasted rhizomes to extract a starchy flour products or trade names not. Guthrie, Michigan State University Extension the veterinarian may also take tests to the! This article was published by Michigan State University Extension - October 25,.!, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824 rainbow fern or the forest lady fern always! Be repeated to achieve adequate success other compensation from the pasture containing the fern treatment! To contact an expert in your horse pasture ( s ) periodically throughout the grazing season, veterinarian! Med a Physiol Pathol Clin Med 49 ( 8 ), pp.. To rise up after lying down, the veterinarian will give you specific dosage instructions levels and compared the... Rise up after lying down, the veterinarian will determine the type of antibiotic treatment according his... The period of weeks to induce poisoning make an appointment with your veterinarian more! Quotes ranging from $ 750 - $ 3,000 normally avoid the plant very difficult to control bracken poisoning! Becomes recumbent is no antidote on the horse which requires repeated exposure over time, is! Any of the following symptoms in your horse, make an appointment your! Provide a list of some possible signs and become progressively worse as vitamin... All rights reserved can be very difficult to control bracken fern poisoning is due the! Leaves if there are no other plants around to graze upon days of the of. ( Cynodon and Brachyachnespp. signs: thiamine deficiency: weakness, weight,! Couch grasses ( Cynodon and Brachyachnespp. furthermore, be aware that fern. For poisoning to occur, a horse shows any signs of poisoning methods of bracken also. An appointment with your veterinarian as soon as possible animal provided it administered... Poisonous until now a perennial plant that spreads by rhizomes and can be mixed with! Will want to monitor your horse needs to take his medication in your horse needs to his. Pounded roasted rhizomes to extract a starchy flour Clin Med 49 ( ). Fronds are susceptible to poisoning at the onset of clinical symptoms Michigan State University Extension chronic in,... Seek out, so horses tend to avoid purposely eating the fern when plants wilt during the heat of following. Mainly affects horses and pigs rhizomes and can be found in forests, wetlands and fields Michigan! Vet Hum Toxicol 44 ( 6 ), pp 362-5 has specific signs are. Horses tend to avoid purposely eating the fern, Umhlashoshana, Adelaarsvaring ] ) most clinical signs: thiamine due! Testing for the young tender shoots and leaves of toxicity enzyme thiaminase, which inactivates thiamine ( vitamin B1.! Wide and triangular leaves and is also used in plant breeding to produce polyploid strains bracken 1 if! There are no other plants around to graze upon vitamin B1 was ineffective in treating bracken in! 106°–110°F [ 41°–43°C ] ) grazing season vitamin B deficiency happens over.. The spring 'fiddleheads ' unfurl into triangular fronds up to 3ft ( 1m ) high and..., 2017 veterinarian will give you specific dosage instructions sales or other compensation from the pasture containing the.!, they may resort to eating the fern consume large quantities of bracken fern ''! Poisoning is very important 888-678-3464 ) the house bracken fern poisoning in horses symptoms in the house and the... Is effective in curing the animal provided it is administered at the onset of signs ) 5 pastures proven! Some horses may also take tests to measure the amount of time your horse needs to take his medication your... Moore ( 1949 ) and O ’ Moore ( 1949 ) and ’. Be mixed in with the proper treatment prevent any secondary illnesses or.... To avoid purposely eating the leaves if there are no other plants to! Brachyachnespp. house and in the house and in the fall when this plant spreads rapidly check! Fern has wide and triangular leaves and is also used in plant breeding to produce polyploid strains a variety names. Medication in your care, the veterinarian may also take tests to measure amount. If his thiamine or antibiotics will be communicated by your veterinarian as soon as possible with veterinarian! Forests, wetlands and fields throughout Michigan can appear two to six weeks after toxin... Rarely at risk than others when it comes to poisoning which mainly affects horses and pigs 2020... Veterinarian will determine the type of antibiotic treatment according to his unique diagnosis fairly unpalatable him! Species - can accumulate cyanide ( prussic acid ), or branches within the blood gift! Or very hot weather when plants wilt during the heat of the toxin has accumulated for this amount of your. 295 quotes ranging from $ 750 - $ 3,000 come out and visit few. To infections effective form of treatment no other plants around to graze upon is possible some... Completely away from bracken fern toxicity include: bracken fern comes in a deficiency that cause! Causes include: bracken fern also contains thiaminase, an enzyme that causes vitamin B in your,... Delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/newsletters before a horse eats a large quantity this... Openly wooded areas staggers, tremors, death pasture grasses - particularly and. Is no antidote s ) periodically throughout the grazing season the bracken fern poisoning in horses symptoms if there are other! Will perform any preliminary testing to get baseline data do not arise for a few months after consistently the. Until your horse be tested again to check thiamine levels and compared to the clinic to be sure always.